CCNA Certification

CCNA, CCNP, CCIE Certification News

The 10 Cisco IOS Router file management commands you must know

Just like a Windows or Linux operating system, the Cisco IOS has its own list of commands to manipulate files, very similar to DOS/Windows commands. These files could be your IOS router operating system, configuration file, or other type of IOS file. Knowing these file commands is a critical requirement for any Cisco admin.

Let’s look at 10 Cisco IOS file management commands you must know.

#1 dir

This shows a directory list of files on a filesystem. To see the options, type dir ?

Router#dir ?

  /all             List all files
  /recursive       List files recursively
  all-filesystems  List files on all filesystems
  archive:         Directory or file name
  cns:             Directory or file name
  flash:           Directory or file name
  null:            Directory or file name
  nvram:           Directory or file name
  system:          Directory or file name
  tar:             Directory or file name
  tmpsys:          Directory or file name
  xmodem:          Directory or file name
  ymodem:          Directory or file name
  <cr>

Router#

You can think of each of these filesystems almost like disk drives in DOS, where you have to put a colon after the name. So, the nvram is called nvram:. The default is to show a directory of the router’s flash as your default current directory is flash:

Router# dir
Directory of flash:/

    2  -rwx    18929780  Aug 29 2006 15:49:57 +00:00  c870-advipservicesk9-mz.124-15.T5.bin
    3  -rwx        2143  Aug 29 2006 16:42:14 +00:00  running-config

23482368 bytes total (4544512 bytes free)
Router#

Every router will have at least flash memory and nvram (non-volatile random access memory).

#2 cd

Change directory: Use cd to change your current directory to a different device or subdirectory on that device. In the following, when I change my directory to the nvram: filesystem and do a dir, I get a list of nvram. I could also cd to a subdirectory after I have created a directory with mkdir.

Router#cd nvram:
Router#dir
Directory of nvram:/

  126  -rw-        2143                    <no date>  startup-config
  127  ----           5                    <no date>  private-config
  128  -rw-        2143                    <no date>  underlying-config
    1  ----          49                    <no date>  persistent-data
    2  -rw-           0                    <no date>  ifIndex-table
131072 bytes total (116584 bytes free)
Router#

#3 copy

This is used to copy the IOS or a config file from and to somewhere. You would use this to copy the router’s configuration off the router to a TFTP server or just make a local backup of it on the router. You would also use the copy command to upgrade the router with a new IOS from a TFTP server.

Here, I am making a local backup of the router’s running configuration:

Router#copy running-config davids-backup-before-upgrade
Destination filename [davids-backup-before-upgrade]?
2181 bytes copied in 3.052 secs (715 bytes/sec)
Router#

#4 delete and rm

Very simply, you will use delete to delete files and rm to remove folders/directories. Here, I use delete to delete the backup of my config that I just created:

Router#delete davids-backup-before-upgrade
Delete filename [davids-backup-before-upgrade]?
Delete flash:/davids-backup-before-upgrade? [confirm]
Router#

#5 show flash

This is used to show the files in your flash. The command show flash is similar to dir flash: but it provides a little more information on the size and type of flash memory in your router.

Router#show flash
24576K bytes of processor board System flash (Intel Strataflash)
Directory of flash:/
    2  -rwx    18929780  Aug 29 2006 15:49:57 +00:00  c870-advipservicesk9-mz.124-15.T5.bin
    3  -rwx        2181   Oct 4 2006 04:03:00 +00:00  mybackup-today
23482368 bytes total (4544512 bytes free)
Router#

#6 erase and format

It can be a bit confusing why you would erase one type of filesystem, but format another. What you really need to know is that you format flash devices and erase nvram. There are other types of filesystems, and you may erase or format them, depending on their type. The erase command is most used when you want to wipe out the router’s configuration and start with a default configuration. This is done with erase startup-configuration.

Router# erase ?
  /all                       Erase all files(in NVRAM)
  /no-squeeze-reserve-space  Do not reserve space for squeeze operation
  flash:                     Filesystem to be erased
  nvram:                     Filesystem to be erased
  startup-config             Erase contents of configuration memory

Router# format ?
  flash:  Filesystem to be formatted

Router#

#7 more

This shows a text / configuration file. Let’s say that you want to view a backup configuration file that you created. Just use the more command to view it:

Router# more my-backup-config
!
version 12.4
parser config cache interface
parser config interface
{config truncated}

#8 verify

This is used to verify the checksum or compute a MD5 signature for a file.

Router#verify flash:c870-advipservicesk9-mz.124-15.T5.bin
Verifying file integrity of flash:c870-advipservicesk9-mz.124-15.T5.bin.......{truncated}............ Done!
Embedded Hash   MD5 : CA8AEC573B197AEC6BD5892DE23C4754
Computed Hash   MD5 : CA8AEC573B197AEC6BD5892DE23C4754
CCO Hash        MD5 : 9D39672246853C0F31533B6BCB21DFE5
Embedded hash verification successful.
File system hash verification failed for file flash:c870-advipservicesk9-mz.124-15.T5.bin(No such file or directory).
Router#

#9 mkdir

Just like in DOS, you use mkdir to create a directory/folder. I would do this to perhaps create an archive folder for backup configurations or old IOS files.

Router# mkdir backup-configs
Create directory filename [backup-configs]?
Created dir flash:backup-configs
Router#

#10 fsck

FAT filesystem check is typically used to check your flash filesystem integrity. You may do this if you have experienced some corruption of your IOS files in flash.

Router# fsck
Fsck operation may take a while. Continue? [confirm]
.....{truncated}.......
Fsck of flash: complete
Router#

While there are so many reasons to use file system commands like these, if I had to select three of the most practical uses for some of the commands listed above, here is my list:

  1. Navigating the Cisco IOS filesystems — knowing what configuration files and what IOS files are on the router, perhaps before performing an upgrade.
  2. Back up your configuration to the local router or off to a TFTP server, again, perhaps before a backup
  3. Performing an upgrade of the Cisco IOS by copying the IOS from a TFTP server to the router.

It’s very important to understand IOS file management commands, what those commands are, and how you can use them in the real world. You don’t want to be stumbling to restore your IOS when the primary IOS is corrupt!

Technorati Tags: ,

April 1, 2009 Posted by | BCMSN, CCNA, CCNP, CCSP, Tech, Technology | 1 Comment

Viva IPv6

It’s alive, but not quite ready. And it might be slowing down network response. You have some options for disabling IPv6 for now.

IPv6 is coming, yet at what appears to be a glacial pace. The problem, though, is that IPv6’s prevalence in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 means that these OSs at times tend to give an IPv6 response to a network request instead of the IPv4 answer we’re used to seeing.

When this happens, it can be cumbersome to troubleshoot what problem is affecting the server or desktop, doubly so when you’re not familiar with IPv6’s addressing scheme or nomenclature.

Among others, there are two things you can do that can assist with keeping IPv6 out of the picture for now, at least until global warming speeds IPv6’s glacial melt-off. The first is the “-4” switch used with the ping command. IPv6 responses to ping requests can be confusing, so this switch forces ping to use IPv4 for the query. To use this switch, simply enter it before the hostname you want to ping, as in:

ping -4 {hostname}

Another option is to disable IPv6 functionality entirely. This can be done by editing the registry. In the location HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip6\Parameters\ create a registry DWORD value titled DisabledComponents. Set the data for this value to 0xffffffff to disable all IPv6 components except for the IPv6 loopback interface. This setting also configures the computer to prefer IPv4 over IPv6. Restart the computer for the setting to take effect.

Later on, when you implement IPv6 in your network, simply reset this value’s data to 0 and reboot again and you’re merrily on your way to the networking of tomorrow.

May 28, 2008 Posted by | Tech, Technology | | Leave a comment

Subnetting: Beyond CCNA?

Question:At my work, we have multiple networks set up across the world and I was looking over a listing of how our networks are subnetted. Here’s an example of how we’re set up on one of our networks:

Subnet id of 150.100.204.96
Range of .97 – .110
Broadcast of .111 on a subnet mask of /28 and the next subnet is
150.100.204.112-143 /27

It does work, but it seems contradictory to what’s taught in the basic CCNA courses. Is this typical advanced subnetting that I just haven’t learned or read about?

Answer:

Based on your IP subnets there, it looks like you’re running into the logical dilemma of mixing different types of subnets all next to each other.

If we used only /28s, we would expect:

150.100.0.0 (Giving hosts from .1 through .14 with a broadcast of .15.)
150.100.0.16 (Giving hosts from .17 through .30 with a broadcast of .31.)
150.100.0.32 (You get the point, so I won’t list them all!)
150.100.0.48
150.100.0.64
150.100.0.80
150.100.0.96
150.100.0.112
150.100.0.128
150.100.0.144
150.100.0.160
150.100.0.176
150.100.0.192
150.100.0.208
150.100.0.224
150.100.0.240

Now, if we had /27s, we would expect:

150.100.0.0 (Giving hosts from .1 through .30 with a broadcast of .31.)
150.100.0.32 (Giving hosts from .33 through .62 with a broadcast of .63.)
150.100.0.64 (Again, you get the point.)
150.100.0.96
150.100.0.128
150.100.0.160
150.100.0.192
150.100.0.224

I believe that’s the way we try to learn things in the CCNA/CCENT training. Mostly, we do that in order to be able to grasp the concepts of binary and how the router looks at things without running the risk of our heads exploding. What the router really looks at is pure binary groups, and as long as there’s no overlap, we’re good to go.

So notice the groupings we can have in the two lists. We all should’ve learned why we cannot have 150.100.0.80/27 as an example. While it makes perfect sense from a counting standpoint that this would allow from .81 to .110 as host addresses, it doesn’t work because of “crossing a bit boundary” (of .96) in the middle of it.

As long as we don’t cross any bit boundaries, though, we’re able to mix and match however we’d like to see things done and in any particular order (get ready for a little headache).

On a single router, or anywhere within my network, I could have:

150.100.0.0/26 (Gives us from .1 to .62 as hosts and .63 as broadcast.)
150.100.0.64/28 (Gives us from .65 to .78 as hosts and .79 as broadcast.
150.100.0.80/29 (Gives us from .81 to .86 as hosts and .87 as broadcast.)
150.100.0.88/30 (Gives us from .89 to .90 as hosts and .91 as broadcast.)
150.100.0.92/31 (Gives us a point to point link with .92 and .93 usable.)
150.100.0.94/31 (Gives us a point to point link with .94 and .95 usable.)
150.100.0.96/27 (Gives us from .97 to .126 as hosts and .127 as broadcast.)
150.100.0.128/25 (Gives us from .129 to .254 as hosts and .255 as broadcast.)

We could have interfaces/networks with all of those subnets, all at the same time, because each and every one of them is contained within a bit boundary based on its netmask.

The router works in a purely binary world. So as long as each separate thing doesn’t violate any rule (like overlap another interface, or cross a bit boundary), then life is good!

CCNA/CCENT training gives us the building blocks by which we can make everything possible, but it’s often not the only way that we have to do things. I know that some people get very irritated by that, but think about it a different way.When you were first learning the concepts of multiplication and division, would it have been nice for your teacher to make you divide two fractions? Or give some long, heinous math problem involving parentheses and stuff? We certainly know now that it’s possible, but at that point in time, our heads would have exploded!

As you progress in networking, and certainly as you get into the world of CCIE, you’ll get to discover all sorts of things that make you go “hmm.” But I hope this at least helps give you a better understanding of the way routers think about things!

March 27, 2008 Posted by | CCNA, CCNP, Education, Tech, Technology | | 1 Comment

CCVP GETS A FACELIFT

With all the changes and advances in IP telephony, Cisco announced that it’s “enhancing” its Cisco Certified Voice Professional (CCVP) certification.

This certification requires five exams beyond the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) and focuses on integrating IP telephony solutions into underlying network architectures, as well as the ability to implement, configure and troubleshoot. Those who earn the certification are expected to know PSTN, VoIP, signaling protocols, voice gateways, gatekeepers and the Cisco Unified Border Element (CUBE).

Read the full article here.

March 27, 2008 Posted by | CCNA, CCNP, CCSP, Education, News, Tech, Technology | , , | Leave a comment

BOOK OF THE WEEK: CCNP ONT OFFICIAL EXAM CERTIFICATION GUIDE

CCNP certification continues to hold its value in the marketplace,and Cisco Press continues to put out high-quality study guides for the exams.

One of the newest entries in the line is Amir Ranjbar’s “CCNP ONT Official Exam Certification Guide.” Targeted at exam 642-845, this book walks through the objectives in an understandable manner and condenses what you need to know into a manageable package.

Tags: CCNP, CCNP Certification

July 13, 2007 Posted by | CCNP, Education, Tech, Technology | Leave a comment

EIGRP And Split Horizon

EIGRP is a major topic for your CCNA and CCNP studies, and one basic skill you’ll need to pass your Cisco certification exams is to identify situations where you need to enable or disable split horizon.

EIGRP commands tend to be a little different than those used with other protocols, so let’s take a look at how EIGRP and split horizon interoperate.

R1 is our hub router, with R2 and R3 as the spokes. There are no subinterfaces, and each router is advertising a single loopback network using its router number for each octet. R1 will see both R2 and R3’s loopback network, but the spokes will not have a route to the other spoke’s loopback. “show ip route eigrp” verifies this.

eigrp1.gif

EIGRP runs split horizon by default, making it impossible for R1 to forward an advertisement to R2 regarding R3’s loopback. Likewise, R1 cannot advertise R2’s loopback address to R3. We could configure two subinterfaces on R1 to resolve this issue, but here we’re going to disable split horizon instead.

eigrp2.gif

Note that disabling split horizon resulted in the EIGRP adjacencies being torn down. They came back up 20 – 35 seconds after being torn down according to the timestamps, but that’s a good detail to keep in mind!

The routing tables of each spoke should now show the loopback network configured on the remote spoke.

eigrp3.gif

Be careful when disabling split horizon. In this scenario, R1 can and will advertise routes out Serial0 that were learned about on that interface in the first place, and that’s not always desirable. Split horizon is enabled by default for a reason, so be careful when disabling it!

April 2, 2007 Posted by | CCNA, CCNP, Education, EIGRP, Technology | Leave a comment

OSPF Virtual Links

Knowing when and how to create an OSPF virtual link is an essential skill for BSCI and CCNP exam success, not to mention how important it can be on your job!

As a CCNA and CCNP candidate, you know the theory of virtual links, so let’s take a look at how to configure a virtual link, as well as some real-world tips that many CCNA and CCNP study guides leave out!

In this configuration, no router with an interface in Area 4 has a physical interface in Area 0. This means a logical connection to Area 0, a virtual link, must be built.

Tn the following example, R1 and R3 are adjacent and both have interfaces in Area 0. R4 has an adjacency with R3 via Area 34, but R4 has no physical interface in Area 0 and is advertising its loopback 4.4.4.4 into OSPF. R1 doesn’t have the route to that loopback.

R1#show ip route ospf
6.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
O 6.6.6.6 [110/11] via 10.1.1.5, 01:05:45, Ethernet0
172.23.0.0/27 is subnetted, 1 subnets
O IA 172.23.23.0 [110/74] via 172.12.123.3, 00:04:14, Serial0
7.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
O 7.7.7.7 [110/11] via 10.1.1.5, 01:05:45, Ethernet0

To resolve this, a virtual link will be built between R3 and R4 through Area 34. The area through which the virtual link is built, the transit area, cannot be a stub area of any kind.

R4(config)#router ospf 1
R4(config-router)#area 34 virtual-link 3.3.3.3
R3(config)#router ospf 12d07h: %OSPF-4-ERRRCV: Received invalid packet: mismatch area ID, from backbone area must be virtual-link but not found from 172.23.23.4, Ethernet0

R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#area 34 virtual-link 4.4.4.4
R3(config-router)#^Z
2d07h: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 4.4.4.4 on OSPF_VL0 from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done

A few details worth noting… the virtual link command uses the remote device’s RID, not necessarily the IP address on the interface that’s in the transit area. Also, don’t worry about that error message you see in the output from R3 that is normal and you’ll see it until you finish building the virtual link.

Always confirm the virtual link with show ip ospf virtual-link. If you’ve configured it correctly, the VL should come up in a matter of seconds.

R3#show ip ospf virtual-link
Virtual Link OSPF_VL0 to router 4.4.4.4 is up
Run as demand circuit
DoNotAge LSA allowed.
Transit area 34, via interface Ethernet0, Cost of using 10
Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT,
Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5
Hello due in 00:00:00
Adjacency State FULL (Hello suppressed)
Index 2/4, retransmission queue length 1, number of retransmission 1
First 0x2C8F8E(15)/0x0(0) Next 0x2C8F8E(15)/0x0(0)
Last retransmission scan length is 1, maximum is 1
Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
Link State retransmission due in 3044 msec

Viirtual links are actually simple to configure, but for some reason they seem to intimidate people. It’s my experience that the error message highlighted in R3’s output above causes a lot of panic, but the only thing that message means is that you’re not finished configuring the virtual link yet.

There are three main misconfigurations that cause 99% of virtual link configuration issues:

  • Using the wrong OSPF RID value
  • Trying to use a stub area as the transit area
  • Failure to configure link authentication on the virtual link when Area 0 is running authentication

That last one is the one that gets forgotten! A virtual link is really an extension of Area 0, and if Area 0 is running link authentication, the virtual link must be configured for it as well. Pay attention to the details. don’t panic when you see the error message on the second router you configure with the virtual link, and you’ll be ready for any virtual link situation on the job or in the CCNA / CCNP exam room!

March 17, 2007 Posted by | BSCI, CCNP, Education, Technology | Leave a comment

Passive Interface Command And OSPF

To pass the BSCI exam and become a CCNP, you have to be aware of the proper use of passive interfaces.

You learned about passive interfaces in your CCNA studies, but here we’ll review the basic concept and clear up one misconception regarding passive interfaces and OSPF.

Configuring an interface as passive will still allow the interface to receive routing updates, but the interface will no longer transmit them.

While the command itself would make you think this command will be applied at the interface level, that is not the case. Below, we’ll configure ethernet0 as a RIP passive interface.

R1(config)#router rip
R1(config-router)#passive-interface ethernet0

Ethernet0 will no longer send RIP routing updates, but will accept them.

The passive interface concept is clear enough with RIP, IGRP, and EIGRP – all rotocols that send routing update packets. But OSPF doesn’t send routing update ackets – OSPF sends link state advertisements.

It’s the inability of the passive interface command to stop LSAs that lead many o think that passive interfaces cannot be used with OSPF.

Even though OSPF does not sent “routing updates” in the form that RIP, IGRP, and IGRP do, you can still configure an OSPF-enabled interface as passive in order o prevent OSPF traffic from exiting or entering that interface.

No OSPF adjacency can be formed if one of the interfaces involved is a passive nterface, and if you configure an OSPF-enabled interface as passive where an djacency already exists, the adjacency will drop almost immediately.

Let’s see that in action. R1 and R2 have an existing OSPF adjacency over their thernet interfaces. In an effort to reduce routing traffic, R1’s e0 interface s configured as passive. The adjacency drops right away.

R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#passive-interface ethernet0
18:31:11: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 2.2.2.2 on Ethernet0 from FULL to DOWN,
Neighbor Down: Interface down or detached

Knowing how to use the passive interface command is a vital part of being a  CNP, and of being a master networker. Good luck to you in both of these pursuits!

March 17, 2007 Posted by | BSCI, CCNP, Education, Technology | 1 Comment

Cisco CCNA Exam: Five ISDN Details To Remember

CCNA exam success depends on mastering many technologies that are new to you, and few exam topics have more details than ISDN.

ISDN isn’t just for your CCNA exam studies, though. While ISDN is dismissed by many, the fact is that there are many small and mid-size networks out there that use ISDN as their backup to frame relay. Some of these companies have spoke networks that use ISDN to connect to their hub as well, so it’s a great idea to know ISDN configuration and troubleshooting for your real-world career as well as passing the CCNA. With that in mind, let’s take a look at five common ISDN errors and how to avoid them.

With dialer map statements, remember that the phone number you put in the dialer map is the phone number of the remote router, not the local one. Look at it this way – if you want to call a friend on your cell, you don’t pick up your cell and dial your own number!

Speaking of dialer map statements, don’t forget the all-important broadcast option at the end of the command:

R1(config-if)#dialer map ip 172.12.21.1 name R2 broadcast 5555555

The router will accept that command without the “broadcast” option, but routing protocol updates and hellos would not be able to travel across the line. (This command is also needed in frame relay map statements to allow broadcasts and multicasts to be transmitted.)

PAP is PPP’s clear-text authentication scheme, and clear text is a really bad idea. But if you do have to configure it, don’t forget that PAP requires additional configuration -the ppp pap sent-username command.

R1(config-if)#ppp pap sent-username R1 password CISCO
Must set encapsulation to PPP before using PPP subcommands
R1(config-if)#

The error message we got while configuring the sent-username command is another important reminder – by default, a BRI line is running HDLC, not PPP. Since HDLC doesn’t allow us to use either PAP or CHAP, we’ll need to set the link to PPP with the encapsulation ppp command.

R1(config-if)#encapsulation ppp
R1(config-if)#ppp authentication pap
R1(config-if)#ppp pap sent-username R1 password CISCO

But before we configure any of this information, we should configure the ISDN switch-type. Why? Because without the switch-type configuration, it doesn’t matter that we avoid the other four errors – the line will not come up. Configure the switch-type with the “isdn switch-type” command, and then verify it with “show isdn status”.

R1(config)#isdn switch-type basic-ni
R1#show isdn status
Global ISDN Switchtype = basic-ni (output of this command cut here for clarity)

If you forget this part of the configuration, the output of show isdn status wastes no time in reminding you!

R1#show isdn status
**** No Global ISDN Switchtype currently defined ****

ISDN is an important part of your CCNA studies, and this knowledge still comes in handy in production networks as well. Keep studying, notice the details, run those debugs, and you’ll be a CCNA before you know it

February 4, 2007 Posted by | CCNA, Education, ISDN, Technology | Leave a comment

Cisco CCNP Exam: Defining Collision Domains

CCNA exam success depends on mastering the fundamentals, and two important fundamentals are knowing exactly what the terms “collision domain” and  “broadcast domain” mean.

In this free Cisco tutorial, we’ll take a look at the term “collision domain” and how a collision domain is defined.

A collision domain is an area in which a collision can occur. Fair enough, but what “collision” are we talking about here?

We’re talking about collisions that occur on CSMA/CD segments, or Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection.

If two hosts on an Ethernet segment transmit data at exactly the same time, the data from the two hosts will collide on the shared segment.

CSMA/CD exists to lessen the chances of this happening, but collisions can still occur. To lessen the chances of collisions occurring, we may decide to create multiple, smaller collision domains.

Lets say we have four hosts on a single Ethernet segment. The entire segment is a collision domain; any data sent by one of the hosts can collide with data sent by any of the other hosts. We have one collision domain containing four devices.

To create smaller collision domains, we’ll need to introduce some type of networking device into this example.

Hubs and repeaters have their place as far as extending the reach of a network segment and cutting down on attenuation, but these OSI Layer One devices do nothing to define collision domains. We could connect each host into a separate port on a hub (a hub is basically a multiport repeater) and we’d still have one single collision domain with four hosts in it.

The most common and most effective way to create multiple collision domains is to use a switch.

If we connect each of these four hosts to their own separate switch port, we would now have four separate collision domains, each with one host; each switch port actually acts as a single collision domain, making collisions between these four hosts impossible.

Passing the CCNA is all about knowing the details of how things work, and knowing CSMA/CD theory and how to define collision domains is one of the many details youve got to master.

In the next part of this CCNA tutorial, we’ll take a look at broadcast domains, and how defining broadcast domains in the right places can dramatically cut down on unnecessary traffic on your network.

January 19, 2007 Posted by | CCNA, CCNP, Education, Tech, Technology | Leave a comment